The channels available for communicating to applicants with advantages and disadvantages described, respectively:
- Walk-in / Email-in contacts – An inexpensive but less useful method for professional, technical, manager, and supervisor positions;
- Referrals from employees, vendors or customers – The recruit is less likely to leave in the first year, but recruits from referrals tend to reflect current age, race, and gender characteristics of current employee population, instead of diversity targets;
- Internal staffing – This is a good source of applicants, especially for managerial positions, but internal staffing requires overhead of internal recruitment, selection, and separation processes; Still, it is possible that no internal candidate may have appropriate skill set to fill the position;
- College recruiting – An active college recruiting program is a way to hire fresh talent that is recruited to promote long-term viability of organization, but the process is expensive to select candidates, and cultivate and maintain relationships with colleges and universities;
- High schools / Vocational schools recruiting – The sheer number and close proximity of these schools make them less expensive but there are often basic skill deficiencies among such applicants;
- Public employment agencies – Agencies that serve the public are widely available but these sources are often the best source for clerical workers, unskilled laborers, and production workers and technicians;
- Private employment agencies/Search firms – search firms and headhunters are very effective in that they can respond to targeted needs for executives but the service is very expensive;
- Professional associations – This can be important services for locating and networking with professionals and employers, which are often available, even through the Web, but with irregular meetings these are sometimes not readily available;
- Web portals – There is the potential for very efficient information exchange for employers or employees in the recruitment or search process, but minorities may be under represented due to unequal access to Internet services;
- Newspaper advertising – The most effective source of candidates for all job classifications, except for managers or supervisors, is newspaper advertising, but studies show that advertising often produces low performing employees and high rates of separation;
- Immigrant recruitment – An important source of scientific and professional talent can be found through bringing employees in from foreign countries, but sponsors often required; moreover, legal restrictions exist;
- Outsourcing or Off-shoring Agencies – significant professional, managerial, and technical talent can be secured by working with agencies specializing in outsourcing the business process to a foreign country or establishing independent business units in the target country.
Milkovich, G.T., & Boudreau, J.W. (1996). Human resources management (8th ed.), New York: Irwin.